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Summary of Randell Mills's Unified Theory

Brett Holverstott

Introduction

Mills's scientific output is enormous and historic. For those new to the material, I have started a point-by-point quick summary of topics. Many of these you will find fleshed out in my book, Randell Mills and the Search for Hydrino Energy, often with individual chapters focused on each topic, which interweaves with the narrative.

One thing you may notice in this overview is how so many of the big mysteries in modern physics are explained by Mills's theory, and how deeply they are interrelated. This is to be expected in any field in which a fundamental, paradigm-setting discovery takes place. It permanently reorients our understanding of existing knowledge, explains many known mysteries, and creates new avenues of research that guide the next century of thought. Exciting times!

1. A New Classical Electron Model

The foundation for Mills's theory was laid with a mid-century innovation in classical electromagnetic theory. The classical nonradiation condition, what I call the Goedecke-Haus condition, shows that some extended charge distributions may undergo constant acceleration without radiating energy. This is part of the canon of mainstream electromagnetic theory, but it is a niche topic. Only specialists pay attention to it, and publish on it rarely.

The most vexing problem of early classical models of the electron was:  How could the electron be stable as it orbits along a circular path in the atom? We know that point-particles must radiate under such conditions. But the Goedecke-Haus condition shows that distributions of charge (shells, planes, etc) may accelerate without radiating.

Mills's first major innovation is solving the tricky problem of how an extended classical electron can be configured such that it is stable when orbiting the nucleus. In Mills's theory, the electron is a spherical shell of charge, centered on the proton, upon which lines of current crisscross in a mathematical pattern of great-circle loops.

2. Electron-Electron Interaction

One of the biggest handicaps of quantum theory is understanding how electrons interact with one another, even in the simplest systems. But Mills' theory allows straightforward classical solutions to interacting electrons. In complex atoms, electrons pile up in nested shells. The forces between them are easily accounted for, and Mills' calculations are a powerful demonstration of the predictive ability of his theory. Mills's calculations of the ionization energies in multielectron atoms and ions and have gone far beyond the abilities of standard quantum mechanics.

3. A New Theory of Molecular Bonding

By building on his atomic model, Mills developed a new, fully classical model for the molecular bond. Electrons for ellipsoidal (or rather, prolate spheroidal) shells with the atomic nuclei at the foci of the ellipse. Bonding is favorable because more of the electron is closer to he protons, so the energy of the system is reduced.

A feature of Mills' theory of bonding is that electrons are localized to individual functional groups, even within very large molecules. This means that pieces of each molecule act almost like independent legos, stacking together to make a molecule. If you want to know the total bond energy of the whole molecule, you can add up the energies of each individual lego, and except in rare cases of aromaticity or conjugation. It is math accessible to a second grader.

This feature serendipitously explains the success of the group additivity theory developed by Sidney Benson. This is a back-of-the-envelope but nevertheless powerful way to calculate heats of formation of molecules without recourse to the computationally overbearing methods of quantum computing, and it relies on the ability to create tables of energies for bonds between functional group pairs. By contrast, quantum theory predicts that electrons are delocalized and interacting for a long distance down a molecular strain, which is true only in the case of conjugation or aromaticity.

4. The 'Hydrino' State

Mills theory predicts the existence of new electron orbits in the hydrogen atom below the "ground" state orbit.

When a photon is absorbed by an atom to create a (well-known) excited state, the photon creates an electric field that shields the charge of the proton, allowing the electron to relax its orbit. Mills predicted that if a photon can be released from the ground state- not by radiation, but through resonant transfer during a collision with anoter atom, the resulting electric field multiplies the intensity of the charge of the proton, causing the electron to shrink to a lower orbit.

Just as energy is absorbed during a transition to an excited state, energy is lost during a transition to a hydrino state. The energy released is rather impressive, easily 100 times that of combustion.

But unlike excited states, hydrino states are stable. There is a 'ladder' of hydrino states at fractional-integer orbits (1/2, 1/3, 1/4, etc). These hydrino atoms have unique chemical reactivity, and although it is an electronic state of an atom, it should be considered a unique chemical species.

There is an abundance of experimental evidence for the hydrino that Mills has compiled over thirty years, including NMR identification of upfield shifted peaks in hydrino hydride compounds; XPS identification of hydrinos and hydrino hydride ions, EUV peaks and continuum radiation bands corresponding to hydrino transitions in hydrogen plasmas; excessively bright hydrogen and mixed-hydrogen plasmas with a variety of unique properties; high heat gains from electrochemical cells, calvet cells, and plasma cells; new compositions of hydrides identified with X-ray crystal diffraction; rovibrational transitions of hydrino molecules in plasmas and trapped in crystals; spin-nuclear coupling of hydrino atoms in far-infrared absorption studies; high-current induced explosive hydrino reactions in capsules of water with a conductive matrix; extremely high-energy light emissions; and sustained reactions.

Mills, his team, and his collaborators have published in excess of a hundred journal articles and dozens of technical reports.

5. The 'Electrino' State

Similar physics pertains to free electrons when they are trapped in an ultra-cool 'superfluid.' In liquid helium, electrons can form spherical bubbles that are maintained by the pressure of the surrounding liquid and the van der Waals forces between neighboring helium atoms.

In this state, electron bubbles can absorb light, forming excited states. Here quantum mechanics makes a painfully wrong prediction: that these excited state bubbles are physically larger than the 'ground' state electron.

Instead, Mills's theory predicts that when the photon is captured (and remember, there is no nucleus at the center of this bubble) the resulting electric field shields the self-repulsion of the electron, causing the electron to shrink to what we might call an 'electrino' state. There is very strong experimental evidence to support the fact that they shrink, instead of enlarge. This is a major success for Mills's theory.

6. Dark Matter

A unique feature of hydrino atoms is that they lack the ability to form excited states. This gives them cosmological importance.

The universe is filled with giant clouds of dust and gas, almost all of which is hydrogen. Astronomers can estimate the density of these vast clouds indirectly, and they repeatedly find that we can see only a small fraction of their total mass. We are missing perhaps 90% of the universe. This is the 'dark matter' problem.

Hydrino atoms are invisible; unlike all other forms of matter, they do not absorb and emit light. This makes them a very convincing candidate for dark matter. Further, when hydrino atoms are created, they do emit light in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelengths. Astronomers indeed see a soft EUV and X-ray "glow" from galaxies that is unexplained. Astronomers have also found lines corresponding to hydrino emission lines in the diffuse background and in stacked spectra of galaxies.

Hydrogen itself is difficult to see, especially if it is very cold. But we have evidence to suggest that most of the gas in the interstellar or intergalactic medium is warm. In some cases it is believed to be inexplicably hot, but this is likely because hydrino emission lines are being interpreted as thermally excited emissions of heavier atoms.

Dark matter is believed to be baryonic, which means it is normal stuff, able to form stars like any other kind of hydrogen. Does this have implications for solar physics? Let's find out.

7. Solar Physics

There are a number of mysteries surrounding the sun. The biggest is that we can't find about 40% of the neutrinos that are being created in the sun by fusion reactions. Therefore, 40% of the sun's power output is unexplained! Hydrino reactions occurring in the sun could easily account for this remaining balance, and Mills has identified solar emission lines that correspond to hydrino transitions. These emission lines often have no other spectral identification.

A second major mystery is why we see emission lines from the atmosphere (the corona) of the sun that show thermally excited atoms at millions of degrees, whereas the surface of the sun itself is only about 5,000 degrees. Complicating this mystery is that we sometimes see emission lines of other elements that could not exist at such high temperatures. Here again, hydrino emissions in the EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths that are absorbed by the sun's corona can explain these observations, without requiring the corona to be millions of degrees.

These lines are not thermally excited, they are electronically excited.

A third mystery is why coronal loops on the sun emit in the EUV and soft X-ray; and what is the nature and origin of violent outbursts on the surface of the sun. Mills has demonstrated in laboratory experiments that ordinary water, in a conductive medium, and subjected to extreme bursts of current, can be induced to violently explode as the result of hydrogen undergoing an H to H(1/4) transition. It is possible that some of this solar activity is due to high-current loops through water vapor in the corona that is inducing powerful explosive arcs.

Finally, the emission spectrum of white dwarf stars (in which fusion reactions are largely exhausted) show continuum radiation bands with cutoffs exactly at the H to H(1/2), H(1/2) to H(1/3) and H(1/3) to H(1/4) hydrino transitions, making it very likely that the majority of the light output is powered by hydrino.

8. Gravity

Mills's second major innovation is making the leap from his new particle theory, to a modified theory of general relativity. He derives a modified Schwartzchild Metric consistent with his theory, effectively unifying the forces of physics. It comes with some important new predictions, including particle-mass calculations, and cosmology.

In Mills's theory, the event of particle production can be described as a transformation from a spherical shell of electric and magnetic fields (the photon) into a spherical shell of charge of identical radius (the particle-antiparticle pair).

This can only occur if the energy of the photon is a close match for the energy of a physically-allowed particle at that radius. By this I mean the stored (classical) electric and magnetic energy of the particle at that radius must equal the particle's eventual mass. Note that this radius is very small, but this is not the permanent size for the particle. The particle is free to change size and shape, often deforming under different conditions later in its life.

The particle-antiparticle pair must reach an escape velocity to split into respective particles; and this process actually 'warps' spacetime, producing a special-relativistic contraction of spacetime itself that is radial, and spherically symmetric, producing a gravitational field. The gravitational mass of the particle is directly calculated from the Newtonian escape velocity of the particle from its antiparticle.

9. Fundamental Particles - The Standard Model

Mills's theory predicted the mass of the top quark shortly before it was released with a simple, closed form equation.

It predicts the exact classes and masses of quarks and leptons, and it also calculates the mass of the W, K, and Higgs boson (which is actually an excited neutron) as well as other particles in the standard model; all using simple, closed form equations using only fundamental constants.

Mills's theory shows that particles come in triplets due to excited resonances of electric and magnetic energies within each particle.

10. The Accelerating Expanding Universe

Mills' theory of gravity led him to a new cosmological model. When energy is converted to matter during particle production, spacetime is contracted and a gravitational field is created. When matter is released back into energy (during annihilation, or during any chemical or nuclear release of energy) spacetime is expanded, literally pushed out.

Mills predicted a oscillating universe in which the universe expands as matter is released as energy over 450 billion years, and then contracts as energy is reformed into matter over another 450 billion years. The plot is sinusoidal, and since we live very early in the expansion phase, the universe should be accelerating its expansion. By contrast, "Big Bang" theory predicts that the universe should be slowing in its outward expansion.

Mills' prediction was confirmed two years after his publication by astronomers using the Hubble Space telescope.  This discovery of inflating spacetime, or 'Dark Energy' has led to many unsuccessful theories.

11. Gamma Ray Bursts

Mills's gravitational theory predicts that any extreme release of energy in the universe must also release a gravitational pulse corresponding to the event, due to the rapid spacetime expansion that occurs. Recently, the first gravitational wave ever detected was found to be associated with a gamma-ray burst (GRB), which is an extremely energetic event.

[I am proud to say that in an early manuscript of my book I made the very straightforward suggestion we ought to see gravitational waves associated with GRB's!]

Astronomers have no explanation for what the GRB could be if it was also the source of the gravitational wave. The best explanation for the wave was the merging of two black holes, but this should not produce a GRB.

According to Mills' theory, the matter in the center of a very heavy black hole can reach a critical density that allows the annihilation of matter directly into energy (photons). The resulting photons are extremely energetic cosmic rays. Thus, black holes can annihilate directly into energy with the emission of a GRB and the release of a gravitational pulse. Other potential candidates for GRB's are the merging of neutrons stars.

These photons are interesting because they are also proto-particles in which both the particle and antiparticle has a mass called the Planck Mass, but they are unable to separate because the escape velocity required would be the speed of light.

12. Superconductivity

Mills has a new theory of superconductivity that predicts high-temperature superconductors. The rational is grounded in the basic physics of the Goedecke-Haus condition, in which electrons occupy extended, nonradiating planes of current in a superconducting lattice structure.

13. Wave Particle Duality

In all particles with mass, electric current propagates at an angular velocity around a spherical or disk-shaped particle with an orbital frequency equivalent to the frequency of the particle, and obeys the de Broglie relationship.

This periodicity gives rise to some apparent wave-like behavior, but the particle is not wave-like; it is the orbital frequency of moving matter and subject only to laws of Newton's mechanics and Maxwell's Electrodynamics.

14. The Double Slit Experiment

Mills explains the double slit experiment in a classical way.

In the experiment with photons, photons are momentarily absorbed and re-emitted by a conductive two-slit surface that preserves the intitial momentum of the photon but imparts on it a classical electromagnetic radiation spread.

In the experiment with electrons, electrons interact with a conductive two-slit surface via a series of absorbed photons that impart on the electron a classical electromagnetic radiation spread while preserving the momentum of the electron. Each band of the resulting distribution is evidence of a spin-flip transition during Compton scattering.

Both experiments preserve the classical nature of the particles.

15. The Aspect Experiments

The angular momentum of each photon is  distributed over the three-dimensional spherical surface with the photon radius. This preserves the measurements of the Aspect Experiments without assuming a "hidden variables" interpretation of a point-particle theory.

16. Time Dilation in Quasars

Astronomers have noticed that quasars that are more distant in space are not time-dilated. This is a problem, because quasars more distant in space should be moving at a faster speed away from us, due to the expansion of the universe. This is, thus far, the single greatest challenge ever faced by Einstein's interpretation of special relativity.

However, Mills argues that this problem is easily solved by coming to a more Newtonian understanding of absolute space and time. According to Mills, an absolute rest frame exists for every particle at the moment of particle production. The expansion of the universe, which is caused by individual matter to energy conversion events, pushes this absolute space around, so to speak. While distant objects recede on the spacetime wind, those objects nevertheless remain close to their absolute space frame.

Therefore, an object that is accelerated away from us at velocity v should exhibit time dilation, but an object carried outward due to spacetime expansion between us and the object should not.

BH